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Belleza antigua

Belleza antigua


A pesar de su reputación de amantes de la sombra, a la mayoría de los helechos no les gusta que los planten en un agujero negro. Por lo general, prefieren la sombra parcial y la tierra húmeda y rica en humus, con mucho abono. Foto de: Betsy Arvelo.

El helecho es una especie modesta. Se arrastra por debajo del suelo del bosque, emergiendo de vez en cuando para desplegar su follaje. Evita el perfume pesado y las flores brillantes, optando por el verde básico. De hecho, siempre pensé en el helecho como algo corriente. No fue hasta que me agaché para estudiar el follaje de grecas del helecho, su historia antigua y sus extraños hábitos que llegué a verlo como todo lo contrario.

El helecho mantiene su propia jerga. Mientras que otras plantas se conforman con tallo, hoja y brote, el helecho prefiere rizoma, fronda y báculo. No hay polinización indecorosa para el digno helecho. Procrea a través de "alternancia de generaciones", enviando su espora como polvo flotando en el aire; al aterrizar, la espora se convierte en una pequeña planta llamada protalo, que produce el familiar helecho. “Sería como si nuestros óvulos y espermatozoides produjeran pequeños seres, de diez pulgadas de alto, y tuvieran relaciones sexuales y nosotros no”, dice Warren Hauk, profesor asociado de biología en la Universidad de Denison en Granville, Ohio, y ex presidente de la Sociedad Americana de Helechos.

El helecho se ha aferrado a la Tierra durante 350 millones de años. Hoy, Pteridophyta, el filo del helecho, comprende unas 12.000 especies y prospera en paisajes desde el ecuador hasta los bosques boreales del norte. El helecho mosquito, una mera mota, crece denso a través de los lagos. El helecho de madera con volantes cubre el suelo del bosque. El helecho trepador hace rappel en las paredes de ladrillo. La hierba lunar despliega una sola hoja festoneada cada año, salpicando dunas de arena y laderas de montañas. En primavera, el helecho culantrillo del Himalaya brilla con un color rosa salmón. En otoño, el helecho real brilla con un color naranja dorado.

Después de que ocurre un desastre —por ejemplo, un flujo de lava o un incendio forestal—, el helecho es a menudo el primero en echar raíces. En 2006, el Washington Post informó sobre una colonia de helechos culantrillos prosperando en una estación de metro de DC, a unos 150 pies bajo tierra. "Son sobrevivientes", dice Michelle Bundy, curadora de la Fundación Hardy Fern en Federal Way, Washington. "Son duros".

Vocabulario de helecho:

ESPORAS
Los helechos no tienen flores ni semillas; en cambio, se reproducen sexualmente por esporas. La parte inferior de las frondas fértiles está decorada con patrones de sori, grupos de hasta 100 casos de esporas que cada uno encierra 64 esporas. Cuando están maduros, las cajas se abren y liberan millones de pequeñas esporas.

CROZIER
Es el elegante despliegue de las cabezas de violín en primavera lo que primero llama nuestra atención sobre los helechos. A diferencia de las hojas de la mayoría de las plantas, que crecen en todas direcciones, la fronda del helecho madura desde la base hacia arriba: la espiral apretada del báculo se desenrolla en la forma característica de la hoja de la hoja.

RIZOMA
Ni la naturaleza ni el jardinero tienen que depender únicamente de las esporas para la reproducción. En la mayoría de las especies de helechos, la propagación vegetativa se produce a través de la ramificación de la parte subterránea de la planta, o rizoma. En la parte inferior del rizoma rastrero hay raíces delgadas que brindan estabilidad y nutren a la planta. Se producen nuevas hojas en las puntas de las ramas.

Además de tierno. En el libro de cuentos, el helecho alberga hadas. En medicina, alivia los dolores. En las artes decorativas, es una abreviatura de buen gusto. Es por eso que los victorianos desarrollaron un caso masivo de "pteridomanía", fiebre del helecho. La imagen del helecho se prensó en cerámica, se cosió en almohadas y se fundió en herrajes. La elegante sala de estar victoriana estaba adornada con una vitrina Wardian —un terrario antiguo— rebosante de helechos. Se pensó que un invernadero de helechos formal, llamado helecho, era una adición apropiada a los parques victorianos, salas de conciertos y hospitales psiquiátricos. “Demostró que tenía buen gusto porque veía el atractivo de las plantas de follaje en lugar de las flores chillonas y llamativas”, dice Sarah Whittingham, autora de The Victorian Fern Craze (Shire, 2009). (Para más información sobre la pasión de los victorianos por los helechos "The New Victorians")

“La locura de los helechos en la época victoriana nunca se detuvo”, dice Serge Zimberoff, propietario de Santa Rosa Tropicals, un vivero en Santa Rosa, California. En temporada alta, la empresa envía 100.000 helechos "cultivados por clones" del laboratorio al vivero cada semana. "Mire en la televisión", dice Zimberoff. "Siempre que una persona habla, siempre hay un gran helecho de Boston cerca".

En la década de 1960, el helecho en maceta se había trasladado al dormitorio y la sala de estar, donde lo cuidaba un tipo con una lata de cobre y una niña, probablemente llamada Fern. Se volvió suave en la década de 1970, cuando ninguna línea de camioneta de barra individual podía entregarse sin problemas sin una sobrecarga de helecho.

Hoy en día, los jardineros aprecian más que nunca el helecho de alto estilo y bajo mantenimiento, y los paisajistas están interesados ​​en el stumpery de nombre indelicado, donde los helechos retozan entre los troncos. El príncipe Carlos mantiene un stumpery. “Los helechos tienen una perspectiva muy clara de la vida”, dice Tom Goforth, propietario de Crow Dog Native Ferns and Gardens en Pickens, Carolina del Sur. “Desarrollaron este estilo de vida hace mucho tiempo. Helechos, creo, simplemente decidió: "Hombre, tenemos todo esto resuelto. ¿Por qué cambiar?'?"

Nuestros helechos favoritos

Foto de: Bryan Whitney.

Helecho borla japonés (Polystichum polyblepharum)

Zonas 4–9. Sombra. Este árbol de hoja perenne de encaje alcanza una altura de 24 a 32 pulgadas.

Foto de: Bryan Whitney.

Helecho de palma de repollo (Phlebodium aureum)

Zonas 8-10. Sol a plena sombra. Un helecho tropical, tiene rizomas rastreros que lo convierten en una opción llamativa para una maceta colgante.

Foto de: Bryan Whitney.

Helecho cuerno de ciervo (Platycerium)

Zonas 10-11. Sol a sombra parcial. Es apreciado por sus largas, gráficas y elegantes hojas.

Foto de: Bryan Whitney.

Helecho pata de conejo (Davallia fejeensis)

Zonas 10-11. Sombra de ligera a completa. Llamado así por sus rizomas peludos, se ve muy bien en una urna o una canasta colgante.

Foto de: Bryan Whitney.

Helecho botón de limón (Nephrolepis cordifolia)

Zonas 8-10. Sombra parcial. Las hojas de este helecho se componen de foliolos pequeños y redondos. Crece hasta casi un pie.

Foto de: Bryan Whitney.

Victoria Lady Fern (Athyrium filix-femina "Victoriae")

Zonas 4–8. Sombra parcial a completa. Este helecho de hoja caduca fue uno de los favoritos durante la época victoriana. Y es resistente a los ciervos.

Foto de: Bryan Whitney.

Helecho acebo japonés (Cyrtomium falcatum)

Zonas 8-11. Un helecho tropical con hojas brillantes, oscuras y en forma de acebo, es una planta de interior atractiva y de bajo mantenimiento.

Foto de: Bryan Whitney.

Helecho nido de pájaro (Asplenium nidus)

Zonas 10-11. Sombra clara. Este helecho, con frondas vidriosas y brillantes, ama la humedad.

Foto de: Brenda Weaver.

Helecho arborescente australiano (Cyathea cooperi)

Zonas 8-11. La cabeza de violín enrollada se despliega a medida que madura el helecho arborescente.

Consejos para el cuidado de los helechos en interiores

Foto de: Brenda Weaver.

Humedad

Riegue los helechos solo cuando la parte superior del suelo esté ligeramente seca. Para mantener la humedad, llene un platillo con guijarros, coloque el helecho en maceta sobre los guijarros y ponga una pequeña cantidad de agua en el platillo.

Foto de: Brenda Weaver.

Luz

Los helechos generalmente prefieren la luz indirecta; demasiada luz solar directa quemará sus frondas. Ajusta las persianas de la ventana para crear la luz adecuada o aleja el helecho de la ventana.

Foto de: Brenda Weaver.

Plagas

Si aparecen insectos como moscas blancas o pulgones, lave las hojas suavemente con agua o rocíelas con un insecticida natural para plantas de interior, diluido a la mitad.


Historia de la cosmética

La historia de la cosmética abarca al menos 7.000 años y está presente en casi todas las sociedades de la tierra. Se argumenta que el arte corporal cosmético fue la forma más antigua de ritual en la cultura humana. La evidencia de esto viene en forma de pigmentos minerales rojos utilizados (ocre rojo), incluidos los crayones asociados con la aparición de Homo sapiens en África. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Los cosméticos se mencionan en el Antiguo Testamento (2 Reyes 9:30, donde Jezabel pintó sus párpados, aproximadamente en el año 840 a. C.) y el libro de Ester describe varios tratamientos de belleza. también.

Los cosméticos también se utilizaron en la antigua Roma, aunque gran parte de la literatura romana sugiere que estaban mal vistos. Se sabe que algunas mujeres en la antigua Roma inventaron maquillajes que incluían fórmulas a base de plomo para blanquear la piel, y se usaba kohl para delinear los ojos. [7]


Bellezas romanas antiguas y su neceser de maquillaje

En la antigüedad, la belleza era tan relevante como ahora y el maquillaje era un verdadero lujo. Diva o Emperatriz, ¿qué había en tu neceser de maquillaje hace dos mil años en la Antigua Roma?

Mantener las apariencias en la antigua Roma era una misión controvertida. Hoy en día, la palabra italiana para maquillaje es "trucco", que significa truco. ¡El maquillaje es mágico, en cierto modo! En la época romana antigua, muchos lo consideraban una mera manipulación. El antiguo poeta romano Juvenal escribió que "una mujer compra perfumes y lociones pensando en el adulterio" y el filósofo Séneca pensó que usar cosméticos llevó al declive de la moral romana. Por supuesto, no hay textos escritos por mujeres que indiquen la actitud femenina hacia la cosmética en ese momento.

Sin embargo, los historiadores encontraron evidencia de que, especialmente para los patricios ricos, la diosa Venus, el departamento de belleza, estaba realmente en marcación rápida.

Sabemos que las mujeres tomaron medidas extremas para mantener su belleza. Incluso hace dos mil años ser bello incluía cierto grado de dolor y se aplicaba el dicho "sin dolor, no hay ganancia". ¡Y, chico, la importancia de la belleza se colocó en primer lugar en esa lista de imprescindibles en su día! Algunas cosas nunca pasan de moda. Tanto si fueras una Virgen Vestatal como si fueras una Diosa, ¡una necesidad era tener un trenza bien vestida!

Bañarse, podar y maquillarse era un ritual importante en el día a día. Y bañarse al estilo romano no era un asunto sencillo, ya que existían tres tipos de baño (Caldarium - caliente, Tepidarium - tibio, Frigidarium - frío).

Sin embargo, la "diva" por excelencia era de Egipto, Cleopatra. Cleo trajo un toque de glamour a Roma durante su visita en el 46 a. C. Llevar el ojo ahumado a las masas mucho antes de los tutoriales web de maquillaje. También se sabía que le gustaban los labios rojos. En Egipto, los labios rojos eran tan malditos de rigor como ahora.

Los productos de maquillaje y belleza se elaboraron a partir de una deliciosa mezcla de productos químicos y excrementos, por decirlo suavemente. Una mezcla de naturaleza y ciencia mantenía a raya los días de mal cabello, al igual que hoy. Nosotras, las chicas, podríamos disfrutar hoy de una mascarilla de menta, que es exactamente lo que también hacían las antiguas bellezas romanas. ¿Qué habría dentro de una bolsa de maquillaje de una antigua romana?

¡Sí! Existían espejos compactos. Bueno, más bien un espejo de mano generalmente hecho de metal pulido o mercurio. Las mujeres adineradas compraban espejos caros y paletas de maquillaje a juego, que estaban disponibles en cajas de madera, hueso u oro.

Mascarillas de belleza

Las máscaras de belleza eran un requisito previo al maquillaje. Estos incluían una mezcla de sudor de lana de oveja, placenta, excrementos, orina de animales, azufre, conchas de ostras molidas y bilis. Y antes de comenzar a juzgar con disgusto, revise la lista de ingredientes de sus cremas favoritas, ¡estoy seguro de que encontrará que las cosas no han cambiado mucho! Cleopatra favorecía el baño en leche de asno. Y esto es antes de blanquear tu piel con margas, estiércol y plomo. La grasa de cisnes fue un éxito de ventas para deshacerse de las arrugas. Los ingredientes más tentadores utilizados en las mascarillas y tratamientos de belleza fueron el agua de rosas, los huevos, el aceite de oliva, la miel, el anís, el aceite de almendras y el incienso.

Sombras de ojos

¿Sin rímel? ¡No hay problema! El corcho quemado era el espesante de pestañas, en el pasado. A las mujeres romanas les gustaban sus pestañas largas, espesas y rizadas, como un signo de belleza traído de Egipto e India.

Podría haber habido una razón aún más importante para mejorar las pestañas largas. El autor romano y filósofo natural Plinio el Viejo escribió que se apartaron del sexo excesivo, por lo que era especialmente importante que las mujeres mantuvieran las pestañas largas para demostrar su castidad.

Kajal mezclado con hollín y antimonio se usó para delinear las cejas y los ojos, y se aplicó con una barra redondeada, hecha de marfil, vidrio, hueso o madera. Los pétalos de rosa carbonizados y las piedras de fecha eran otros productos que se usaban para oscurecer los ojos. El verde y el azul también eran colores populares para las sombras de ojos, generalmente hechos de una mezcla de minerales.

Frida Kahlo habría estado totalmente de moda en la antigua Roma ya que les gustaban las cejas oscuras que casi se juntan en el centro y trataban de lograrlo oscureciendo sus cejas con antimonio u hollín y luego extendiéndolas hacia adentro.

Los labios rojos se lograron usando bromo, jugo de escarabajo y cera de abejas, con una cucharada de henna. Además de una mano amiga del cosmetae (esclavas que adornaban a sus amantes) que trabajaban duro para embellecer a sus adineradas amantes romanas.

Martial (antiguo autor romano) se burló de las mujeres que usaban colorete debido al clima cálido y abrasador, haciendo que el maquillaje corriera por las mejillas. El colorete era cualquier cosa, desde el caro ocre rojo importado, o pétalos de rosa, hasta el venenoso plomo rojo. El extremo económico del espectro de colores del colorete se hizo con escoria de vino y mora. Las damas romanas también se frotaban algas marrones en la cara como colorete, lo que lograba el efecto deseado y al mismo tiempo era tranquilizadoramente inofensivo.

El maquillaje olía tan mal que las divas romanas usaban un perfume acre para ofrecer una promesa de rosa sobre plomo. Los perfumes se utilizaron con tanta frecuencia que Cicerón afirmó que "el aroma adecuado para una mujer no es ninguno".

Venían en todo tipo de formas, líquidas, sólidas y pegajosas, y cada ocasión tenía un olor específico. Los desodorantes hechos de alumbre, iris y pétalos de rosa eran bastante comunes. En su mayoría se elaboraban mediante un proceso de maceración con flores o hierbas y aceite. La tecnología de destilación, así como la mayoría de los ingredientes importados, se originaron en el este.

Esa humedad mediterránea, nunca es buena para los "up-do". Cada mañana un ornatrice (peluqueros) se hizo cargo de las trenzas, usando calamistrum que era el nombre del curling i ron romano, varillas de bronce calentadas sobre cenizas calientes. Básicamente, los "GHD" originales, junto con el suero de aceite de oliva. La moda del peinado en Roma estaba cambiando constantemente, y particularmente en el Período del Imperio Romano l había varias formas diferentes de peinar el cabello. En general, un estilo 'natural' se asoció con los bárbaros, por lo que las mujeres romanas preferían peinados complejos y antinaturales que mostraban la riqueza y el estatus social del usuario al máximo.

¡Olvídese del lema 'menos es más', para las mujeres de la antigua Roma 'más era más'!


2. Concepciones filosóficas de la belleza

Cada una de las vistas esbozadas a continuación tiene muchas expresiones, algunas de las cuales pueden ser incompatibles entre sí. En muchas o quizás la mayoría de las formulaciones reales, están presentes elementos de más de una de esas explicaciones. Por ejemplo, el tratamiento de Kant de la belleza en términos de placer desinteresado tiene elementos obvios de hedonismo, mientras que el neoplatonismo extático de Plotino incluye no solo la unidad del objeto, sino también el hecho de que la belleza llama al amor o la adoración. Sin embargo, también vale la pena señalar cuán divergentes o incluso incompatibles entre sí son muchos de estos puntos de vista: por ejemplo, algunos filósofos asocian la belleza exclusivamente con el uso, otros precisamente con la inutilidad.

2.1 La concepción clásica

El historiador del arte Heinrich Wölfflin ofrece una descripción fundamental de la concepción clásica de la belleza, tal como se materializa en la pintura y la arquitectura del Renacimiento italiano:

La idea central del Renacimiento italiano es la de la proporción perfecta. En la figura humana como en el edificio, esta época se esforzó por lograr la imagen de la perfección en reposo dentro de sí misma. Cada forma se desarrolló hasta convertirse en un ser autoexistente, el todo libremente coordinado: nada más que partes que viven independientemente…. En el sistema de una composición clásica, las partes individuales, por muy firmemente que estén enraizadas en el todo, mantienen una cierta independencia. No es la anarquía del arte primitivo: la parte está condicionada por el todo y, sin embargo, no deja de tener vida propia. Para el espectador, eso presupone una articulación, un avance de una parte a otra, que es una operación muy diferente de la percepción en su conjunto. (Wölfflin 1932, 9-10, 15)

La concepción clásica es que la belleza consiste en un arreglo de partes integrales en un todo coherente, según proporción, armonía, simetría y nociones similares. Esta es una concepción occidental primordial de la belleza, y se materializa en la arquitectura, la escultura, la literatura y la música clásicas y neoclásicas dondequiera que aparezcan. Aristóteles dice en el Poética que “para ser bella, una criatura viviente, y todo todo compuesto de partes, debe… presentar un cierto orden en la disposición de las partes” (Aristóteles, volumen 2, 2322 [1450b34]). Y en el Metafísica: “Las formas principales de la belleza son el orden, la simetría y la definición, que las ciencias matemáticas demuestran en un grado especial” (Aristóteles, volumen 2 1705 [1078a36]). Este punto de vista, como sugiere Aristóteles, a veces se reduce a una fórmula matemática, como la sección áurea, pero no es necesario pensar en términos tan estrictos. La concepción se ejemplifica sobre todo en textos como el de Euclides Elementos y obras de arquitectura como el Partenón y, de nuevo, por el Canon del escultor Policleto (finales del siglo V / principios del IV a. C.).

La Canon no solo era una estatua digna de mostrar una proporción perfecta, sino un tratado de belleza ahora perdido. El médico Galeno caracteriza el texto especificando, por ejemplo, las proporciones de “el dedo al dedo, y de todos los dedos al metacarpo, y la muñeca, y de todos estos al antebrazo, y del antebrazo al brazo”. , de hecho de todo a todo…. Por habernos enseñado en ese tratado todos los symmetriae del cuerpo, Policlito apoyó su tratado con una obra, habiendo hecho la estatua de un hombre según su tratado, y habiendo llamado a la estatua misma, como el tratado, el Canon”(Citado en Pollitt 1974, 15). Es importante señalar que el concepto de "simetría" en los textos clásicos es distinto y más rico que su uso actual para indicar duplicación bilateral. También se refiere precisamente a los tipos de proporciones armoniosas y mensurables entre las partes características de los objetos que son bellos en el sentido clásico, que también tenían un peso moral. Por ejemplo, en el Sofista (228c-e), Platón describe las almas virtuosas como simétricas.

El antiguo arquitecto romano Vitruvio ofrece una caracterización de la concepción clásica tan buena como cualquier otra, tanto en sus complejidades como, apropiadamente, en su unidad subyacente:

La arquitectura consiste en el orden, que en griego se llama Taxis, y arreglo, que los griegos denominan diátesis, y de Proporción y Simetría y Decoración y Distribución que en los griegos se llama oeconomía.

El orden es el ajuste equilibrado de los detalles de la obra por separado y, en cuanto al conjunto, la disposición de la proporción con miras a un resultado simétrico.

La proporción implica una apariencia elegante: la adecuada exhibición de detalles en su contexto. Esto se logra cuando los detalles de la obra son de una altura adecuada a su anchura, de una anchura adecuada a su longitud en una palabra, cuando todo tiene una correspondencia simétrica.

La simetría también es la armonía apropiada que surge de los detalles de la obra en sí: la correspondencia de cada detalle dado con la forma del diseño en su conjunto. Como en el cuerpo humano, del codo, pie, palma, pulgada y otras partes pequeñas surge la cualidad simétrica de la euritmia. (Vitruvio, 26-27)

Santo Tomás de Aquino, en una formulación pluralista típicamente aristotélica, dice que “Hay tres requisitos para la belleza. En primer lugar, integridad o perfección, porque si algo se deteriora, es feo. Luego está la debida proporción o consonancia. Y también claridad: de ahí que las cosas de colores vivos se llaman bellas ”(Summa Theologica I, 39, 8).

Francis Hutcheson en el siglo XVIII da lo que bien podría ser la expresión más clara del punto de vista: “Lo que llamamos Hermoso en Objetos, para hablar en el Estilo Matemático, parece estar en una Proporción compuesta de Uniformidad y Variedad de modo que donde la Uniformidad de El cuerpo es igual, la Belleza es como la Variedad y donde la Variedad es igual, la Belleza es como la Uniformidad ”(Hutcheson 1725, 29). De hecho, los defensores del punto de vista a menudo hablan "en el estilo matemático". Hutcheson continúa aduciendo fórmulas matemáticas, y específicamente las proposiciones de Euclides, como los objetos más bellos (en otro eco de Aristóteles), aunque también elogia con entusiasmo la naturaleza, con su enorme complejidad sustentada por leyes físicas universales como se revela, por ejemplo, por Newton. Hay belleza, dice, “en el conocimiento de algunos grandes Principios, o Fuerzas universales, de las cuales fluyen innumerables Efectos. Así es la gravitación, en el esquema de Sir Isaac Newton ”(Hutcheson 1725, 38).

Edmund Burke da una serie muy convincente de refutaciones y contraejemplos a la idea de que la belleza puede ser una cuestión de proporciones específicas entre las partes, y por lo tanto a la concepción clásica, en Una investigación filosófica sobre el origen de nuestras ideas de lo bello y lo sublime:

Volviendo nuestros ojos al reino vegetal, no encontramos nada allí tan hermoso como las flores, pero las flores tienen todo tipo de forma, y ​​cada tipo de disposición se transforman y modelan en una variedad infinita de formas. ... La rosa es una flor grande, sin embargo, crece sobre un pequeño arbusto, la flor de la manzana es muy pequeña y crece sobre un árbol grande, pero la rosa y la flor del manzano son hermosas. … El cisne, ciertamente un pájaro hermoso, tiene un cuello más largo que el resto de su cuerpo, pero una cola muy corta, ¿es esta una hermosa proporción? debemos permitir que lo sea. Pero, ¿qué diremos del pavo real, que tiene un cuello relativamente corto, con una cola más larga que el cuello y el resto del cuerpo juntos? ... Hay algunas partes del cuerpo humano, que se observa que tienen ciertas proporciones entre sí, pero antes de que se pueda probar que la causa eficiente de la belleza radica en estas, debe demostrarse que dondequiera que se encuentren exactas, la la persona a la que pertenecen es hermosa. ... Por mi parte, en varias ocasiones he examinado con mucho cuidado muchas de estas proporciones, y he encontrado que se mantienen muy cerca, o completamente iguales en muchos temas, que no solo eran muy diferentes entre sí, sino que uno ha sido muy hermoso. y el otro muy alejado de la belleza. ... Puede asignar las proporciones que desee a cada parte del cuerpo humano y me comprometo a que un pintor las observará todas y, sin embargo, producirá, si le place, una figura muy fea. (Burke 1757, 84–89)

2.2 La concepción idealista

Hay muchas formas de interpretar la relación de Platón con la estética clásica. El sistema político esbozado en La republica caracteriza la justicia en términos de la relación de parte y todo. Pero Platón también fue sin duda un disidente de la cultura clásica, y la explicación de la belleza que se expresa específicamente en El Simposio—Quizás el texto socrático clave para el neoplatonismo y para la concepción idealista de la belleza— expresa una aspiración hacia la belleza como unidad perfecta.

En medio de una fiesta para beber, Sócrates relata las enseñanzas de su instructora, Diotima, sobre cuestiones de amor. Ella conecta la experiencia de la belleza con lo erótico o el deseo de reproducirse (Platón, 558-59 [Simposio 206c-207e]). Pero el deseo de reproducirse se asocia a su vez con el deseo de lo inmortal o eterno: "¿Y por qué todo este anhelo de propagación? Porque este es el único elemento inmortal y eterno de nuestra mortalidad. Y puesto que hemos acordado que el amante anhela que el bien sea suyo para siempre, se deduce que estamos obligados a anhelar la inmortalidad tanto como el bien, es decir, el amor es un anhelo de inmortalidad ”(Platón, pág. 559, [Simposio 206e-207a]). Lo que sigue es, si no clásico, al menos clásico:

El candidato a esta iniciación no puede, si sus esfuerzos han de ser recompensados, comenzar demasiado pronto a dedicarse a las bellezas del cuerpo. En primer lugar, si su preceptor le instruye como debe, se enamorará de la belleza de un cuerpo individual, para que su pasión dé vida al discurso noble. A continuación, debe considerar cuán cercana es la belleza de un cuerpo a la belleza de cualquier otro, y verá que si se dedica a la belleza de la forma, será absurdo negar que la belleza de todos y cada uno de los cuerpos. es el mismo. Habiendo llegado a este punto, debe dedicarse a ser el amante de todos los cuerpos amados y llevar su pasión por el único en la debida proporción considerándolo de poca o ninguna importancia.

A continuación, debe comprender que las bellezas del cuerpo no son nada para las bellezas del alma, de modo que dondequiera que se encuentre con la belleza espiritual, incluso en la cáscara de un cuerpo desagradable, lo encontrará lo suficientemente hermoso como para enamorarse y enamorarse de él. acariciar — y lo suficientemente hermoso como para avivar en su corazón el anhelo de un discurso que tiende a la construcción de una naturaleza noble. Y a partir de ahí se verá conducido a contemplar la belleza de las leyes y las instituciones. Y cuando descubra que toda clase de belleza se asemeja a todas las demás, concluirá que la belleza del cuerpo no es, después de todo, tan importante. ...

Y así, cuando su prescrita devoción por las bellezas juveniles ha llevado a nuestro candidato tan lejos que la belleza universal amanece en su interior, está casi al alcance de la revelación final. ... A partir de las bellezas individuales, la búsqueda de la belleza universal debe encontrarlo subiendo la escalera celestial, pasando de un peldaño a otro, es decir, de uno a dos, y de dos a cada cuerpo encantador, y de la belleza corporal a la belleza de las instituciones, de las instituciones al saber, y del saber en general al saber especial que no pertenece más que a lo bello mismo, hasta que por fin llega a saber qué es la belleza.

Y si, mi querido Sócrates, continuó Diotima, la vida del hombre siempre vale la pena vivir, es cuando ha alcanzado esta visión del alma misma de la belleza. (Platón, 561–63 [Simposio 210a – 211d])

La belleza aquí se concibe —quizá explícitamente en contraste con la estética clásica de las partes integrantes y el todo coherente— como unidad perfecta, o incluso como el principio de unidad en sí mismo.

Plotino, como ya hemos visto, se acerca a equiparar la belleza con la forma per se: es la fuente de la unidad entre cosas dispares, y es en sí misma la unidad perfecta. Plotino ataca específicamente lo que hemos llamado la concepción clásica de la belleza:

Casi todo el mundo declara que la simetría de las partes entre sí y hacia un todo, con, además, cierto encanto de color, constituye la belleza reconocida por el ojo, que en las cosas visibles, como en todo lo demás, universalmente, lo bello es esencialmente simétrico, modelado.

Pero piensa en lo que esto significa.

Solo un compuesto puede ser bello, nunca nada que carezca de partes y solo un todo, las varias partes tendrán belleza, no en sí mismas, sino solo si trabajan juntas para dar un hermoso total. Sin embargo, la belleza en conjunto exige belleza en los detalles; no puede construirse a partir de la fealdad, su ley debe abarcarla.

Toda la belleza del color e incluso la luz del sol, desprovista de partes y, por lo tanto, no es hermosa por simetría, debe descartarse del reino de la belleza. ¿Y cómo es que el oro se convierte en algo bello? Y los relámpagos de la noche y las estrellas, ¿por qué son tan bellas?

En los sonidos también debe prohibirse lo simple, aunque a menudo en una composición noble completa cada tono es delicioso en sí mismo. (Plotino, 21 [Enéada 1.6])

Y Plotino declara que el fuego es la cosa física más hermosa, “haciendo siempre hacia arriba, el más sutil y vivaz de todos los cuerpos, tan cercano al incorpóreo. … De ahí el esplendor de su luz, el esplendor que pertenece a la Idea ”(Plotino, 22 [Enéada 1.3]). Tanto para Plotino como para Platón, toda multiplicidad debe ser finalmente inmolada en unidad, y todos los caminos de investigación y experiencia conducen hacia lo Bueno / Hermoso / Verdadero / Divino.

Esto dio lugar a una visión básicamente mística de la belleza de Dios que, como ha sostenido Umberto Eco, persistió junto a un ascetismo antiestético a lo largo de la Edad Media: un deleite en la profusión que finalmente se funde en una sola unidad espiritual. En el siglo VI, Pseudo-Dionisio el Areopagita caracterizó a toda la creación como un anhelo hacia Dios, el universo es llamado a existir por el amor de Dios como belleza (Pseudo-Dionisio, 4.7 ver Kirwan 1999, 29). Los placeres sensuales / estéticos podrían considerarse la expresión de la inmensa y hermosa profusión de Dios y nuestro arrebato por ello. Eco cita a Suger, abad de St. Denis en el siglo XII, describiendo una iglesia ricamente decorada:

Así, cuando —por mi deleite en la belleza de la casa de Dios— la hermosura de las gemas multicolores me ha alejado de las preocupaciones externas, y la digna meditación me ha inducido a reflexionar, transfiriendo lo material a lo que es inmaterial, sobre la diversidad de las virtudes sagradas: entonces me parece que me veo morando, por así decirlo, en alguna extraña región del universo que no existe ni enteramente en el limo de la tierra ni enteramente en la pureza del Cielo. y que, por la gracia de Dios, puedo ser transportado de este mundo inferior a otro superior de una manera anagógica. (Eco 1959, 14)

Esta concepción ha tenido muchas expresiones en la era moderna, incluso en figuras como Shaftesbury, Schiller y Hegel, según quienes la estética o la experiencia del arte y la belleza es un puente primario (o para usar la imagen platónica, la escalera o la escalera). ) entre lo material y lo espiritual. Para Shaftesbury, hay tres niveles de belleza: lo que Dios hace (la naturaleza), lo que los seres humanos hacen a partir de la naturaleza o lo que es transformado por la inteligencia humana (el arte, por ejemplo) y, finalmente, lo que hace incluso al creador de cosas como nosotros (es decir, , Dios). El personaje de Shaftesbury, Theocles, describe "el tercer orden de belleza",

que forma no sólo lo que llamamos meras formas, sino incluso las formas que forman. Porque nosotros mismos somos arquitectos notables en la materia, y podemos mostrar cuerpos sin vida tomados en forma y modelados por nuestras propias manos, pero lo que da forma incluso a las mentes mismas, contiene en sí mismo todas las bellezas modeladas por esas mentes, y por lo tanto es el principio, fuente y fuente de toda belleza. ... Todo lo que aparece en nuestro segundo orden de formas, o todo lo que se deriva o se produce de allí, todo esto está eminentemente, principal y originalmente en este último orden de belleza suprema y soberana. … Así la arquitectura, la música y todo lo que es de invención humana, se resuelve en este último orden. (Shaftesbury 1738, 228-29)

La expresión de Schiller de una serie similar de pensamientos fue fundamentalmente influyente en las concepciones de la belleza desarrolladas dentro del idealismo alemán:

El concepto prerracional de la Belleza, si se aduce tal cosa, no puede extraerse de ningún caso real; más bien, en sí mismo corrige y guía nuestro juicio sobre cada caso real; por lo tanto, debe buscarse a lo largo del camino de la abstracción, y puede ser inferida simplemente de la posibilidad de una naturaleza que es a la vez sensual y racional en una palabra, la Belleza debe exhibirse como una condición necesaria de la humanidad. Beauty … makes of man a whole, complete in himself. (1795, 59–60, 86)

For Schiller, beauty or play or art (he uses the words, rather cavalierly, almost interchangeably) performs the process of integrating or rendering compatible the natural and the spiritual, or the sensuous and the rational: only in such a state of integration are we—who exist simultaneously on both these levels—free. This is quite similar to Plato's ‘ladder’: beauty as a way to ascend to the abstract or spiritual. But Schiller—though this is at times unclear—is more concerned with integrating the realms of nature and spirit than with transcending the level of physical reality entirely, a la Plato. It is beauty and art that performs this integration.

In this and in other ways—including the tripartite dialectical structure of the view—Schiller strikingly anticipates Hegel, who writes as follows.

The philosophical Concept of the beautiful, to indicate its true nature at least in a preliminary way, must contain, reconciled within itself, both the extremes which have been mentioned [the ideal and the empirical] because it unites metaphysical universality with real particularity. (Hegel 1835, 22)

Beauty, we might say, or artistic beauty at any rate, is a route from the sensuous and particular to the Absolute and to freedom, from finitude to the infinite, formulations that—while they are influenced by Schiller—strikingly recall Shaftesbury, Plotinus, and Plato.

Both Hegel and Shaftesbury, who associate beauty and art with mind and spirit, hold that the beauty of art is higher than the beauty of nature, on the grounds that, as Hegel puts it, “the beauty of art is born of the spirit and born again” (Hegel 1835, 2). That is, the natural world is born of God, but the beauty of art transforms that material again by the spirit of the artist. This idea reaches is apogee in Benedetto Croce, who very nearly denies that nature can ever be beautiful, or at any rate asserts that the beauty of nature is a reflection of the beauty of art. “The real meaning of ‘natural beauty’ is that certain persons, things, places are, by the effect which they exert upon one, comparable with poetry, painting, sculpture, and the other arts” (Croce 1928, 230).

2.3 Love and Longing

Edmund Burke, expressing an ancient tradition, writes that, “by beauty I mean, that quality or those qualities in bodies, by which they cause love, or some passion similar to it” (Burke 1757, 83). As we have seen, in almost all treatments of beauty, even the most apparently object or objectively-oriented, there is a moment in which the subjective qualities of the experience of beauty are emphasized: rhapsodically, perhaps, or in terms of pleasure or ataraxia, as in Schopenhauer. For example, we have already seen Plotinus, for whom beauty is certainly not subjective, describe the experience of beauty ecstatically. In the idealist tradition, the human soul, as it were, recognizes in beauty its true origin and destiny. Among the Greeks, the connection of beauty with love is proverbial from early myth, and Aphrodite the goddess of love won the Judgment of Paris by promising Paris the most beautiful woman in the world.

There is an historical connection between idealist accounts of beauty and those that connect it to love and longing, though there would seem to be no entailment either way. We have Sappho's famous fragment 16: “Some say thronging cavalry, some say foot soldiers, others call a fleet the most beautiful sights the dark world offers, but I say it's whatever you love best” (Sappho, 16). (Indeed, at Phaedrus 236c, Socrates appears to defer to “the fair Sappho” as having had greater insight than himself on love [Plato, 483].)

Plato's discussions of beauty in the Symposium and the Phaedrus occur in the context of the theme of erotic love. In the former, love is portrayed as the ‘child’ of poverty and plenty. “Nor is he delicate and lovely as most of us believe, but harsh and arid, barefoot and homeless” (Plato, 556 [Symposium 203b–d]). Love is portrayed as a lack or absence that seeks its own fulfillment in beauty: a picture of mortality as an infinite longing. Love is always in a state of lack and hence of desire: the desire to possess the beautiful. Then if this state of infinite longing could be trained on the truth, we would have a path to wisdom. The basic idea has been recovered many times, for example by the Romantics. It fueled the cult of idealized or courtly love through the Middle Ages, in which the beloved became a symbol of the infinite.

Recent work on the theory of beauty has revived this idea, and turning away from pleasure has turned toward love or longing (which are not necessarily entirely pleasurable experiences) as the experiential correlate of beauty. Both Sartwell and Nehamas use Sappho's fragment 16 as an epigraph. Sartwell defines beauty as “the object of longing” and characterizes longing as intense and unfulfilled desire. He calls it a fundamental condition of a finite being in time, where we are always in the process of losing whatever we have, and are thus irremediably in a state of longing. And Nehamas writes

I think of beauty as the emblem of what we lack, the mark of an art that speaks to our desire. … Beautiful things don't stand aloof, but direct our attention and our desire to everything else we must learn or acquire in order to understand and possess, and they quicken the sense of life, giving it new shape and direction. (Nehamas 2007, 77)

2.4 Hedonist Conceptions

Thinkers of the 18 th century—many of them oriented toward empiricism—accounted for beauty in terms of pleasure. The Italian historian Ludovico Antonio Muratori, for example, in quite a typical formulation, says that “By beautiful we generally understand whatever, when seen, heard, or understood, delights, pleases, and ravishes us by causing within us agreeable sensations” (see Carritt 1931, 60). In Hutcheson it is not clear whether we ought to conceive beauty primarily in terms of classical formal elements or in terms of the viewer's pleasurable response. He begins the Inquiry Into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue with a discussion of pleasure. And he appears to assert that objects which instantiate his “compound ratio of uniformity and variety’ are peculiarly or necessarily capable of producing pleasure:

The only Pleasure of sense, which our Philosophers seem to consider, is that which accompanys the simple Ideas of Sensation But there are vastly greater Pleasures in those complex Ideas of objects, which obtain the Names of Beautiful, Regular, Harmonious. Thus every one acknowledges he is more delighted with a fine Face, a just Picture, than with the View of any one Colour, were it as strong and lively as possible and more pleased with a Prospect of the Sun arising among settled Clouds, and colouring their Edges, with a starry Hemisphere, a fine Landskip, a regular Building, than with a clear blue Sky, a smooth Sea, or a large open Plain, not diversify'd by Woods, Hills, Waters, Buildings: And yet even these latter Appearances are not quite simple. So in Musick, the Pleasure of fine Composition is incomparably greater than that of any one Note, how sweet, full, or swelling soever. (Hutcheson 1725, 22)

When Hutcheson then goes on to describe ‘original or absolute beauty,’ he does it, as we have seen, in terms of the qualities of the beautiful thing, and yet throughout, he insists that beauty is centered in the human experience of pleasure. But of course the idea of pleasure could come apart from Hutcheson's particular aesthetic preferences, which are poised precisely opposite Plotinus's, for example. That we find pleasure in a symmetrical rather than an asymmetrical building (if we do) is contingent. But that beauty is connected to pleasure appears, according to Hutcheson, to be necessary, and the pleasure which is the locus of beauty itself has ideas rather than things as its object.

Hume writes in a similar vein in the Treatise of Human Nature:

Beauty is such an order and construction of parts as, either by the primary constitution of our nature, by custom, or by caprice, is fitted to give a pleasure and satisfaction to the soul. … Pleasure and pain, therefore, are not only necessary attendants of beauty and deformity, but constitute their very essence. (Hume 1740, 299)

Though this appears ambiguous as between locating the beauty in the pleasure or in the impression or idea that causes it, Hume is soon talking about the ‘sentiment of beauty,’ where sentiment is, roughly, a pleasurable or painful response to impressions or ideas, though beauty is a matter of cultivated or delicate pleasures. Indeed, by the time of Kant's Third Critique and after that for perhaps two centuries, the direct connection of beauty to pleasure is taken as a commonplace, to the point where thinkers are frequently identifying beauty as a certain sort of pleasure. Santayana, for example, as we have seen, while still gesturing in the direction of the object or experience that causes pleasure, emphatically identifies beauty as a certain sort of pleasure.

One result of this approach to beauty—or perhaps an extreme expression of this orientation—is the assertion of the positivists that words such as ‘beauty’ are meaningless or without cognitive content, or are mere expressions of subjective approval. Hume and Kant were no sooner declaring beauty to be a matter of sentiment or pleasure and therefore to be subjective than they were trying to ameliorate the sting, largely by emphasizing critical consensus. But once this fundamental admission is made, any consensus is contingent. Another way to formulate this is that it appears to certain thinkers after Hume and Kant that there can be no reasons to prefer the consensus to a counter-consensus assessment. A.J. Ayer writes:

Such aesthetic words as ‘beautiful’ and ‘hideous’ are employed … not to make statements of fact, but simply to express certain feelings and evoke a certain response. It follows…that there is no sense attributing objective validity to aesthetic judgments, and no possibility of arguing about questions of value in aesthetics. (Ayer 1952, 113)

All meaningful claims either concern the meaning of terms or are empirical, in which case they are meaningful because observations could confirm or disconfirm them. ‘That song is beautiful’ has neither status, and hence has no empirical or conceptual content. It merely expresses a positive attitude of a particular viewer it is an expression of pleasure, like a satisfied sigh. The question of beauty is not a genuine question, and we can safely leave it behind or alone. Most twentieth-century philosophers did just that.

2.5 Use and Uselessness

Philosophers in the Kantian tradition identify the experience of beauty with disinterested pleasure, psychical distance, and the like, and contrast the aesthetic with the practical. “Taste is the faculty of judging an object or mode of representing it by an entirely disinterested satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The object of such satisfaction is called beautiful” (Kant 1790, 45). Edward Bullough distinguishes the beautiful from the merely agreeable on the grounds that the former requires a distance from practical concerns: “Distance is produced in the first instance by putting the phenomenon, so to speak, out of gear with our practical, actual self by allowing it to stand outside the context of our personal needs and ends.“ (Bullough 1912, 244)

On the other hand, many philosophers have gone in the opposite direction and have identified beauty with suitedness to use. ‘Beauty’ is perhaps one of the few terms that could plausibly sustain such entirely opposed interpretations.

According to Diogenes Laertius, the ancient hedonist Aristippus of Cyrene took a rather direct approach.

Is not then, also, a beautiful woman useful in proportion as she is beautiful and a boy and a youth useful in proportion to their beauty? Well then, a handsome boy and a handsome youth must be useful exactly in proportion as they are handsome. Now the use of beauty is, to be embraced. If then a man embraces a woman just as it is useful that he should, he does not do wrong nor, again, will he be doing wrong in employing beauty for the purposes for which it is useful. (Diogenes Laertius, 94)

In some ways, Aristippus is portrayed parodically: as the very worst of the sophists, though supposedly a follower of Socrates. And yet the idea of beauty as suitedness to use finds expression in a number of thinkers. Xenophon's Memorabilia puts the view in the mouth of Socrates, with Aristippus as interlocutor:

Socrates: In short everything which we use is considered both good and beautiful from the same point of view, namely its use.

Aristippus: Why then, is a dung-basket a beautiful thing?

Socrates: Of course it is, and a golden shield is ugly, if the one be beautifully fitted to its purpose and the other ill. (Xenophon, Book III, viii)

Berkeley expresses a similar view in his dialogue Alciphron, though he begins with the hedonist conception: “Every one knows that beauty is what pleases” (Berkeley 1732, 174, see Carritt 1931, 75). But it pleases for reasons of usefulness. Thus, as Xenophon suggests, on this view, things are beautiful only in relation to the uses for which they are intended or to which they are properly applied. The proper proportions of an object depend on what kind of object it is, and again a beautiful ox would make an ugly horse. “The parts, therefore, in true proportions, must be so related, and adjusted to one another, as they may best conspire to the use and operation of the whole” (Berkeley 1732, 174–75, see Carritt 1931, 76). One result of this is that, though beauty remains tied to pleasure, it is not an immediate sensible experience. It essentially requires intellection and practical activity: one has to know the use of a thing, and assess its suitedness to that use.

This treatment of beauty is often used, for example, to criticize the distinction between fine art and craft, and it avoids sheer philistinism by enriching the concept of ‘use,’ so that it might encompass not only performing a practical task, but performing it especially well or with an especial satisfaction. Ananda Coomaraswamy, the Ceylonese-British scholar of Indian and European medieval arts, adds that a beautiful work of art or craft expresses as well as serves its purpose.

A cathedral is not as such more beautiful than an airplane, … a hymn than a mathematical equation. … A well-made sword is not more beautiful than a well-made scalpel, though one is used to slay, the other to heal. Works of art are only good or bad, beautiful or ugly in themselves, to the extent that they are or are not well and truly made, that is, do or do not express, or do or do not serve their purpose. (Coomaraswamy 1977, 75)

Roger Scruton, in his book Beauty (2009) returns to a modified Kantianism with regard to both beauty and sublimity, enriched by many and varied examples. "We call something beautiful," writes Scruton, "when we gain pleasure from contemplating it as an individual object, for its own sake, and in its presented form." (Scruton 2009, 26)

Despite the Kantian framework, Scruton, like Sartwell and Nehamas, throws the subjective/objective distinction into question. He compares experiencing a beautiful thing to a kiss. To kiss someone that one loves is not merely to place one body part on another, "but to touch the other person in his very self. Hence the kiss is compromising - it is a move from one self toward another, and a summoning of the other into the surface of his being." (Scruton 2009, 48)


Ancient Egypt – Beauty, Makeup and Hygiene

Women in Ancient Egypt were fixated on cleanliness, makeup, and beauty. Ancient Egyptians were known for their distinct eye makeup, oils and perfumes.

Ancient Egyptians were fixated on cleanliness and beauty, and at the very least, eye makeup was used by men, women and children of all status. The main ingredient of the makeup was also used to combat eye inflammation and infection ever present in marshy swamps along the Nile and the dry, arid conditions beyond.

Ancient Egyptian Hygiene

Both men and women shaved and plucked all their body hair using tweezers, knives, and razors of flint and metal. Various oils were used as shaving lotions. Rich Egyptians shaved their heads and used wigs made of human hair which were worn every day. Whether or not the women also shaved their heads depended on the dynasty. Aside from being fashionable, wigs were worn to protect the scalp from the sun’s heat and prevent head lice common to the environment. Women who kept their hair used extensions to fill thinning areas, carefully woven and knotted to their own hair with beeswax and resin. Henna was the favorite tint used to cover premature gray – women of ancient Egypt had an average life span of forty. Perfumed oils were rubbed into the scalp after shampooing to scent the hair.

For soap when bathing, natron was used a compound that occurs naturally in baking soda mixed with sodium carbonate, the latter extracted from the ashes of many plants and currently synthetically produced from table salt as a water softener. As far back as 1500 BC, soaps were also made from animal or vegetable oil and salt. Cleansing creams were a mixture of chalk and oil. The wealthy had bathing facilities in their homes, but the majority bathed in the Nile which was also used for laundry and sewage. Water born diseases were common. Queens of Ancient Egypt preferred to bathe in milk as it exfoliated and restored their skin. Linen towels were used for drying.

Undiluted, natron was also used as toothpaste (probably applied by finger) and mouthwash. They chewed parsley or similar herbs for fresh breath. Though the remains of Ancient Egyptians show little tooth decay, their teeth were much worn by the invasive granules of the sands.

Ancient Egyptian Makeup

For cosmetic and fragrance use, Egyptians preferred oil from the Balanites Aegyptiaca – a tree native to Africa and the Middle East, nuts of the Moringa or Horseradish tree, and almond oil. These oils had a pleasing aroma and were beneficial for dry or aging skin. Fenugreek seeds were used as a skin softener and for facial masks, and Ancient Egyptians believed that a tea made from these seeds could stimulate breast growth. Frankincense and myrrh were rubbed into the skin as aromatic protection against the harsh arid climate as well as to rid themselves of body lice. Aloe vera was treasured by Ancient Egyptian queens for smoothing skin. Natural honey was also used as a facial.

Both men and women outlined their eyes in green or black almond shapes with long tails in the outer corners. The green was made from malachite, an oxide of copper from Sinai. Green was eventually replaced with the black color of Galena – lead sulfide found near Aswan and the Red Sea Coast, combined with other ingredients. The materials were powdered on a palette and then mixed with ointments from animal fat to adhere the powder to the eye. Also used as eyeshadow and mascara.

Galena was applied with a small stick, and stored in lidded pots of various sizes and designs. Known to possess disinfectant and fly-repelling properties, Galena was also used as protection from the sun’s rays and the “evil eye”. While all Egyptians used Galena, what separated the classes were the expense and luxury of the containers and applicators. Even the humblest graves had at least simple palettes and the Galena was stored in pouches, jars or reeds. Used as far back as 3500 BC, it is still used today in Egypt under the name Kohl – readily and inexpensively available at the marketplace. The basic containers and applicators are the same as they were in Ancient Egypt.

Saffron (old-world yellow crocus) was also used as an eyeshadow. Burnt almonds combined with minerals were used to shape and color eyebrows and the mixture further developed into another suitable form of eyeshadow. The wealthy used eye shadows made of ground lapis lazuli, azurite and malachite. Their use in Egyptian burial ceremonies dates back to 10,000 BC. For lips and cheeks, Ancient Egyptians used red ochre, ground and mixed with water and applied with a brush. Henna was used to dye the fingernails yellow and orange.

Cleopatra’s lipsticks were made from finely crushed carmine beetles, which had a deep red pigment. This mixture was then combined with ant eggs.

Ancient Egyptian Perfumes

Perfumes made by the Egyptians were very expensive but were high quality and famous throughout the Mediterranean area. Only the wealthy could afford them. To oils were added both local and imported products including frankincense, myrrh, rose, lily, iris, orange, lime, cinnamon and sandalwood.

Though Ancient Egyptian beauty was immortalized by Elizabeth Taylor in the movie Cleopatra, the Egyptians are by no means the only culture to go to great lengths in the name of beauty. Ancient Greek women, preferring a pale countenance, smoothed a paste of white lead mixed with water over their faces and bodies. Surprisingly, their life span of 35 to 40 was no shorter than that of the Ancient Egyptian women.


Contenido

  • 1 Across the globe
    • 1.1 Egypt
    • 1.2 Middle East
    • 1.3 China
    • 1.4 Mongolia
    • 1.5 Japan
    • 1.6 Europe
    • 1.7 The Americas and Australia
  • 2 Recent history
    • 2.1 20th century
    • 2.2 21st century
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Sources
  • 6 External links

Egypt Edit

The use of cosmetics in Ancient Egypt is well documented. Kohl has its roots in north Africa. Remedies to treat wrinkles containing ingredients such as gum of frankincense and fresh moringa. For scars and burns, a special ointment was made of red ochre, kohl, and sycamore juice. An alternative treatment was a poultice of carob grounds and honey, or an ointment made of knotgrass and powdered root of wormwood. To improve breath the ancient Africans chewed herbs or frankincense which is still in use today. Jars of what could be compared with setting lotion have been found to contain a mixture of beeswax and resin. These doubled as remedies for problems such as baldness and greying hair. They also used these products on their mummies, because they believed that it would make them irresistible in the after life.

Middle East Edit

Cosmetics were used in Persia and what today is Iran from ancient periods. [ cita necesaria ] Kohl is a black powder that is used widely across the Persian Empire. It is used as a powder or smeared to darken the edges of the eyelids similar to eyeliner. [8] After Persian tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire. [ cita necesaria ] In Islamic law, despite these requirements, there is no absolute prohibition on wearing cosmetics the cosmetics must not be made of substances that harm one's body.

An early teacher in the 10th century was Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis, who wrote the 24-volume medical encyclopedia Al-Tasrif. A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called "Medicine of Beauty" (Adwiyat al-Zinah). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present-day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification. [ cita necesaria ]

China Edit

Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg white from around 3000 BC. The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty (first millennium BC) royals wore gold and silver later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails. [9]

Flowers play an important decorative role in China. Legend has it that once on the 7th day of the 1st lunar month, while Princess Shouyang, daughter of Emperor Wu of Liu Song, was resting under the eaves of Hanzhang Palace near the plum trees after wandering in the gardens, a plum blossom drifted down onto her fair face, leaving a floral imprint on her forehead that enhanced her beauty further. [10] [11] [12] The court ladies were said to be so impressed, that they started decorating their own foreheads with a small delicate plum blossom design. [10] [11] [13] This is also the mythical origin of the floral fashion, meihua zhuang [11] (梅花妝 literally "plum blossom makeup"), that originated in the Southern Dynasties (420–589) and became popular amongst ladies in the Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) dynasties. [13] [14]

Mongolia Edit

Women of royal families painted red spots on the center of their cheeks, right under their eyes. However, it is a mystery why. [ cita necesaria ]

Japan Edit

In Japan, geisha wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips, and sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers' hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base. Rice powder colors the face and back rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose. [15] Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony, called Erikae, when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent. The geisha would also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.

Europe Edit

In the Roman Empire, the use of cosmetics was common amongst prostitutes and rich women. Such adornment was sometimes lamented by certain Roman writers, who thought it to be against the castitas required of women by what they considered traditional Roman values and later by Christian writers who expressed similar sentiments in a slightly different context. Pliny the Elder mentioned cosmetics in his Naturalis Historia, and Ovid wrote a book on the topic.

In the Middle Ages it was thought sinful and immoral to wear makeup by Church leaders, [ cita necesaria ] but many women still did so. From the Renaissance up until the 20th century the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs and the typically light-colored European's skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher a person was in status, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept their skin pale. Thus, the highest class of European society were pale resulting in European men and women attempting to lighten their skin directly, or using white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic. [ cita necesaria ] A variety of products were used, including white lead paint which also may have contained arsenic, which also poisoned and killed many. [ cita necesaria ] Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the Mask of Youth". [16] Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style. [ cita necesaria ]

Pale faces were a trend during the European Middle Ages. In the 16th century, women would bleed themselves to achieve pale skin. Spanish prostitutes wore pink makeup to contract pale skin. [ cita necesaria ] 13th century Italian women wore red lipstick to show that they were upper class. [17] ..

The Americas and Australia Edit

Some Native American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle. [ cita necesaria ] Similar practices were followed by Aboriginals in Australia.

20th century Edit

During the early 1900s, makeup was not excessively popular. In fact, women hardly wore makeup at all. Make-up at this time was still mostly the territory of prostitutes, those in cabarets and on the black & white screen. [18] Face enamelling (applying actual paint to the face) became popular among the rich at this time in an attempt to look paler. This practice was dangerous due to the main ingredient often being arsenic. [19] Pale skin was associated with wealth because it meant that one was not out working in the sun and could afford to stay inside all day. Cosmetics were so unpopular that they could not be bought in department stores they could only be bought at theatrical costume stores. A woman's "makeup routine" often only consisted of using papier poudré, a powdered paper/oil blotting sheet, to whiten the nose in the winter and shine their cheeks in the summer. Rouge was considered provocative, so was only seen on "women of the night." Some women used burnt matchsticks to darken eyelashes, and geranium and poppy petals to stain the lips. [19] > Vaseline became high in demand because it was used on chapped lips, as a base for hair tonic, and soap. [19] Toilet waters were introduced in the early 1900s, but only lavender water or refined cologne was admissible for women to wear. [20] Cosmetic deodorant was invented in 1888, by an unknown inventor from Philadelphia and was trademarked under the name Mum (deodorant). Roll-on deodorant was launched in 1952, and aerosol deodorant in 1965.

Around 1910, make-up became fashionable in the United States of America and Europe owing to the influence of ballet and theatre stars such as Mathilde Kschessinska and Sarah Bernhardt. Colored makeup was introduced in Paris upon the arrival of the Russian Ballet in 1910, where ochers and crimsons were the most typical shades. [21] The Daily Mirror beauty book showed that cosmetics were now acceptable for the literate classes to wear. With that said, men often saw rouge as a mark of sex and sin, and rouging was considered an admission of ugliness. In 1915, a Kansas legislature proposed to make it a misdemeanor for women under the age of forty-four to wear cosmetics "for the purpose of creating a false impression." [22] The Daily Mirror was one of the first to suggest using a pencil line (eyeliner) to elongate the eye and an eyelash curler to accentuate the lashes. Eyebrow darkener was also presented in this beauty book, created from gum Arabic, Indian ink, and rosewater. [23] George Burchett developed cosmetic tattooing during this time period. He was able to tattoo on pink blushes, red lips, and dark eyebrows. He also was able to tattoo men disfigured in the First World War by inserting skin tones in damaged faces and by covering scars with colors more pleasing to the eye. [24] Max Factor opened up a professional makeup studio for stage and screen actors in Los Angeles in 1909. [25] Even though his store was intended for actors, ordinary women came in to purchase theatrical eye shadow and eyebrow pencils for their home use.

In the 1920s, the film industry in Hollywood had the most influential impact on cosmetics. Stars such as Theda Bara had a substantial effect on the makeup industry. Helena Rubinstein was Bara's makeup artist she created mascara for the actress, relying on her experiments with kohl. [26] Others who saw the opportunity for the mass-market of cosmetics during this time were Max Factor, Sr., and Elizabeth Arden. Many of the present day makeup manufacturers were established during the 1920s and 1930s. Lipsticks were one of the most popular cosmetics of this time, more so than rouge and powder, because they were colorful and cheap. In 1915, Maurice Levy invented the metal container for lipstick, which gave license to its mass production. [27] The Flapper style also influenced the cosmetics of the 1920s, which embraced dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel. The eyebrow pencil became vastly popular in the 1920s, in part because it was technologically superior to what it had been, due to a new ingredient: hydrogenated cottonseed oil (also the key constituent of another wonder product of that era Crisco Oil). [28] The early commercial mascaras, like Maybelline, were simply pressed cakes containing soap and pigments. A woman would dip a tiny brush into hot water, rub the bristles on the cake, remove the excess by rolling the brush onto some blotting paper or a sponge, and then apply the mascara as if her eyelashes were a watercolor canvas. [28] Eugene Schueller, founder of L'Oréal, invented modern synthetic hair dye in 1907 and he also invented sunscreen in 1936. [29] The first patent for a nail polish was granted in 1919. Its color was a very faint pink. It's not clear how dark this rose was, but any girl whose nails were tipped in any pink darker than a baby's blush risked gossip about being "fast." [28] Previously, agricultural workers had only sported suntans, while fashionable women kept their skins as pale as possible. In the wake of Chanel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new fake tan products were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look. In Asia, skin whitening continued to represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day.

In the time period after the First World War, there was a boom in cosmetic surgery. During the 1920s and 1930s, facial configuration and social identity dominated a plastic surgeon's world. Face-lifts were performed as early as 1920, but it wasn't until the 1960s when cosmetic surgery was used to reduce the signs of aging. [30] During the twentieth century, cosmetic surgery mainly revolved around women. Men only participated in the practice if they had been disfigured by the war. Silicone implants were introduced in 1962. In the 1980s, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons made efforts to increase public awareness about plastic surgery. As a result, in 1982, the United States Supreme Court granted physicians the legal right to advertise their procedures. [31] The optimistic and simplified nature of narrative advertisements often made the surgeries seem hazard-free, even though they were anything but. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported that more than two million Americans elected to undergo cosmetic procedures, both surgical and non-surgical, in 1998, liposuction being the most popular. Breast augmentations ranked second, while numbers three, four, and five went to eye surgery, face-lifts, and chemical peels. [30]

During the 1920s, numerous African Americans participated in skin bleaching in an attempt to lighten their complexion as well as hair straightening to appear whiter. Skin bleaches and hair straighteners created fortunes worth millions and accounted for a massive thirty to fifty percent of all advertisements in the black press of the decade. [32] Oftentimes, these bleaches and straighteners were created and marketed by African American women themselves. Skin bleaches contained caustic chemicals such as hydroquinone, which suppressed the production of melanin in the skin. These bleaches could cause severe dermatitis and even death in high dosages. Many times these regimens were used daily, increasing an individual's risk. In the 1970s, at least 5 companies started producing make-up for African American women. Before the 1970s, makeup shades for Black women were limited. Face makeup and lipstick did not work for dark skin types because they were created for pale skin tones. These cosmetics that were created for pale skin tones only made dark skin appear grey. Eventually, makeup companies created makeup that worked for richer skin tones, such as foundations and powders that provided a natural match. Popular companies like Astarté, Afram, Libra, Flori Roberts and Fashion Fair priced the cosmetics reasonably due to the fact that they wanted to reach out to the masses. [33]

From 1939 to 1945, during the Second World War, cosmetics were in short supply. [34] Petroleum and alcohol, basic ingredients of many cosmetics, were diverted into war supply. Ironically, at this time when they were restricted, lipstick, powder, and face cream were most desirable and most experimentation was carried out for the post war period. Cosmetic developers realized that the war would result in a phenomenal boom afterwards, so they began preparing. Yardley, Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and the French manufacturing company became associated with "quality" after the war because they were the oldest established. Pond's had this same appeal in the lower price range. Gala cosmetics were one of the first to give its products fantasy names, such as the lipsticks in "lantern red" and "sea coral." [35]

During the 1960s and 1970s, many women in the western world influenced by feminism decided to go without any cosmetics. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." This included cosmetics, [36] which were among items the protestors called "instruments of female torture" [37] and accouterments of what they perceived to be enforced femininity.

Cosmetics in the 1970s were divided into a "natural look" for day and a more sexualized image for evening. Non-allergic makeup appeared when the bare face was in fashion as women became more interested in the chemical value of their makeup. [38] Modern developments in technology, such as the High-shear mixer facilitated the production of cosmetics which were more natural looking and had greater staying power in wear than their predecessors. [39] The prime cosmetic of the time was eye shadow, though women also were interested in new lipstick colors such as lilac, green, and silver. [40] These lipsticks were often mixed with pale pinks and whites, so women could create their own individual shades. "Blush-ons" came into the market in this decade, with Revlon giving them wide publicity. [40] This product was applied to the forehead, lower cheeks, and chin. Contouring and highlighting the face with white eye shadow cream also became popular. Avon introduced the lady saleswoman. [41] In fact, the whole cosmetic industry in general opened opportunities for women in business as entrepreneurs, inventors, manufacturers, distributors, and promoters. [42]

21st century Edit

Beauty products are now widely available from dedicated internet-only retailers, [43] who have more recently been joined online by established outlets, including the major department stores and traditional bricks and mortar beauty retailers.

Like most industries, cosmetic companies resist regulation by government agencies. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not approve or review cosmetics, although it does regulate the colors that can be used in the hair dyes. The cosmetic companies are not required to report injuries resulting from use of their products. [44]

Although modern makeup has been used mainly by women traditionally, gradually an increasing number of males are using cosmetics usually associated to women to enhance their own facial features. Concealer is commonly used by cosmetic-conscious men. Cosmetics brands are releasing cosmetic products especially tailored for men, and men are using such products more commonly. [45] There is some controversy over this, however, as many feel that men who wear makeup are neglecting traditional gender, and do not view men wearing cosmetics in a positive light. Others, however, view this as a sign of ongoing gender equality and feel that men also have rights to enhance their facial features with cosmetics if women could.

Today the market of cosmetics has a different dynamic compared to the 20th century. Some countries are driving this economy:

Japan is the second largest market in the world. Regarding the growth of this market, cosmetics in Japan have entered a period of stability. However, the market situation is quickly changing. Now consumers can access a lot of information on the Internet and choose many alternatives, opening up many opportunities for newcomers entering the market, looking for chances to meet the diverse needs of consumers. The size of the cosmetics market for 2010 was 2286 billion yen on the basis of the value of shipments by brand manufacturer. With a growth rate of 0.1%, the market was almost unchanged from the previous year. [46]

One of the most interesting emerging markets, the 5th largest in the world in 2012, the Russian perfumery and cosmetics market has shown the highest growth of 21% since 2004, reaching US$13.5 billion. [ cita necesaria ]


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